It is called disinfection to a physical or chemical process that kills or inactivates pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and protozoa preventing the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetative phase are inert objects.
Disinfectants reduce harmful organisms to a level that will not harm health or the quality of perishable goods. Some, such as phenolic compounds, may also act as antiseptics.
Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as instruments and surfaces, to treat and prevent infections. Among the most common chemical water disinfectants include chlorine, chloramines, ozone. Water disinfection can also be physically when boiling is used, filtration and ultraviolet irradiation. They should be distinguished disinfectants sanitizers which are substances that reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level.